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Review article (Published On: 17-May-2022)

Foot and Mouth Disease in Cameroon: A systematic review to support its progressive control

Sevidzem

J. Vet. Res. Adv., 04 (01):15-26

Sevidzem: LEV

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Article History: Received on: 31-Jan-22, Accepted on: 11-May-22, Published on: 17-May-22

Corresponding Author: Sevidzem

Email: sevidzem.lendze@gmail.com

Citation: Lendzele SS, Aubin KA and Mavoungou JF (2022). Foot and Mouth Disease in Cameroon: A systematic review to support its progressive control. J. Vet. Res. Adv., 04 (01):15-26


Abstract

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an infectious viral transboundary disease of even-toed animals, caused by the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). It affects the development of the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and is endemic in Cameroon. The main objective of the study was to provide reviewed data on the epidemiology, risks, control and the existing gaps on FMD in Cameroon from 1990 to 2021 to support its progressive control. To attain this objective, relevant and available documents (n=45) on FMD in Cameroon such as peer-reviewed papers (n=27), dissertations (n=11), conferences (n=5) and technical reports (n=2) were used. Studies on the molecular and serological epidemiology, the role of carrier/mobile animals, the evaluation ofimmune-cross protection between serotypes and the quantification of serotype-specific transmission parameters using mathematical models have been discussed. The environmental drivers of FMD in cattle markets, abattoir and herd-level, as well as risk factors such as husbandry practices, communal grazing, regional/international livestock trading system, transhumance and fomites were presented. As international borders remain porous with poor FMD monitoring infrastructure at veterinary checkpoints in a country with no candidate vaccine, vaccination program and commercial vaccines available, farmers are left with no option other than to manage the disease with traditional formulations and veterinary pharmaceuticals mostly antibiotics. Tri-Solfen® (TS), a wound dressing formulation was efficient in managing FMD in Cameroon. The current gaps in FMD knowledge in Cameroon were presented. There was a need for a comprehensive epidemiological study in the major cattle rearing regions of Cameroon. A regional study to identify all the risk factors for the transmission of FMD was required and a socio-economic impact study of FMD was required in Cameroon.


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